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causes of acute kidney injury
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is caused by a sudden onset and rapid decline in kidney function over a few hours or days. It is a serious medical condition that leads to accumulation of water, electrolytes and metabolic waste in the body. Decreased kidney function can affect all organs, but especially the heart, requiring immediate treatment. Several factors can cause acute kidney disease. Some chronic diseases negatively affect the kidneys over time, while others strike suddenly. A regular visit to a nephrologist in Hyderabad can help you lower your risk factor and prevent acute kidney disease. This blog will also help you understand the cause, symptoms and treatment of acute kidney disease.
What causes acute kidney injury?
Sudden and severe drop in blood flow to the kidneys – Blood flow to the kidneys can be reduced by excessive blood loss, an accident, or a serious illness such as sepsis. Dehydration, or lack of fluid in the body, can also affect the kidneys. Some other reasons for a sudden drop in blood flow are:
- an infection
- liver failure
- Medications including aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen or COX-2 inhibitors like Celebrex
- Blood pressure medications
- Cardiac insufficiency
- Severe burns or dehydration
- Blood or fluid loss
Something directly damaged your kidneys – Most people do not have kidney problems because of medication use. People with major, long-term health problems are more likely to develop kidney disease from medication. Medications that can occasionally affect the kidneys include:
- Different antibiotics such as gentamicin and streptomycin
- Pain relievers such as naproxen and ibuprofen.
- Blood pressure medications, such as ACE inhibitors.
- Some dyes are used in X-ray tests.
A blockage that prevents the flow of urine from the kidneys – A blockage when urinating can be caused by kidney stones, tumors, lesions or an enlarged prostate.
- Bladder, cervix, colon, or prostate cancer
- Blood clots in your urinary tract
- Bladder nerve damage
What are the signs and symptoms of acute kidney failure?
Symptoms of acute kidney failure can include:
- Swelling in the ankles, feet or legs – One of the first indications is the appearance of swelling in the ankles, feet or legs. Edema at these sites forms when pressure is applied, known as pitting edema. As kidney function declines, salt retention occurs, causing swelling in the shins and ankles. In summary, anyone with new-onset pedal edema should see a nephrologist immediately and have their kidney function evaluated.
- Periorbital Edema refers to swelling or swelling around the eyes produced by the accumulation of fluid in the cells or tissues. It is one of the other symptoms of a kidney problem. It is more noticeable in people with considerable leakage of protein through the kidney. The loss of proteins from the body reduces ventricular oncotic pressure and causes extravascular fluid to collect in various locations, such as around the eyes.
- weakness – Early fatigability is almost usually an indication of kidney disease. As kidney failure worsens, this symptom becomes more noticeable. The person may feel more sleepy or tired than usual and unable to perform more intense tasks, requiring additional rest. This is mainly due to the buildup of toxins and pollutants in the blood due to poor kidney function. As it is a non-specific symptom, it is often neglected and little investigated.
- less appetite – As a result of the collection of toxins like urea, creatinine and acids, the individual’s appetite is diminished. In addition, as the kidney condition worsens, there is a change in taste, which patients often describe as metallic if they feel early satiety when eating little throughout the day.
- Morning nausea and vomiting – Morning nausea is one of the first signs of acute kidney failure. It also contributes to the individual’s poor appetite. The patient with end-stage renal failure usually has frequent vomiting and complete loss of appetite.
- anemia – When a person’s hemoglobin level starts to decline, they may appear pale and there is no obvious source of blood loss from the body. The condition can lead to weakness and fatigue. Anemia is caused by several factors, including low levels of erythropoietin (erythropoietin is generated in the kidney), low levels of iron, and toxin accumulation, which causes bone marrow suppression.
- Changes in urine frequency – Your urine output may decrease or you may feel the urge to pee more often, especially at night (called nocturia). It can be a warning sign that the kidney filtration units have been damaged or are about to be damaged. In men, this may indicate a urinary tract infection or an enlarged prostate. As a result, any change (increase or decrease) in urine output should be reported to your nephrologist only once.
- Foamy urine or blood in the urine – Excessive foam in the urine can lead to protein deficiency. Proteins and blood cells flow into the urine when the kidney’s filtering function is disturbed. Blood in the urine may suggest kidney disease, tumors, kidney stones, or infection. Also, pus in the urine with a fever or chills could indicate a serious urinary tract infection. A kidney specialist should immediately report the color, consistency, or character changes of the urine.
- Dry and itchy skin – Itchy skin can indicate severe kidney disease. Toxins tend to build up in the body when kidney function declines, resulting in itchy, dry, and foul-smelling skin.
- Pain in the back or lower abdomen: Pain in the back, sides, or below the ribs can be an early sign of a kidney disease, such as kidney stones or pyelonephritis. Similarly, lower abdominal pain can be caused by a bladder infection or a stone in the ureter (the tube that connects the kidney and bladder).
- High pressure – High blood pressure can be a symptom of kidney disease. To decrease the risk of acute kidney disease, each person diagnosed with hypertension should undergo a thorough assessment of kidney function and kidney imaging. As kidney function weakens, salt and water retention occurs, resulting in increased blood pressure. Symptoms of hypertension include headaches, stomach discomfort, visual fainting, and perhaps the first signs of kidney damage.
What are the treatment options for kidney disease?
If you are diagnosed with acute kidney failure (also known as end-stage renal disease or ESRD), you will need dialysis or a kidney transplant to live. Although there is no cure for end-stage kidney disease, many people live long lives on dialysis or after a kidney transplant. Your doctor can advise you on the best treatment for you, depending on your state of health. you can find the best nephrologist in Hyderabad who has extensive experience in performing kidney transplants with excellent results.